Bibliography

page frame shield kuYoshihiro Tobe, 大島筆記 Oshima Hikki 1762
The page regarding Kushanku, the Chinese diplomat Quán Kuí (全魁) who led the 1756-1757 Chinese investiture mission to the Kingdom of Ryūkyū is located here公相君 are the original Chinese characters for his title, not his name, his name was Quán Kuí (全魁). As it stands, the kata names ‘Kushanku, Kosokun, and Kwankū’ correspond to him, regardless of pronunciation.

McLeod, John, Voyage of His Majesty’s ship Alceste, along the coast of Corea to the Island of LewChew 1818
“Crimes are said to be very unfrequent among them, and they seem to go perfectly unarmed, for we observed no warlike instruments of any description…it must have been the policy of the Chinese to disarm them, for it appears that, in the first instance, they defended themselves nobly against their attacks, as well as those of the Japanese. Not even a bow or arrow was to be seen;” P. 122

Nagoya Sagenta Tokiyuki, 南島雑話 Nanto Zatsuwa 1853-1856
This wonderfully illustrated record of life on the island of Amami Oshima depicts two men doing what appears to be, hardening their fists. One, a seated man striking the back of his fist downward against a stone, sandbox, or just a box. And two, a man appears to be standing while punching or striking what seems to be a makiwara. In some versions, the second man illustrated standing and striking a makiwara is absent, however, the seated man is present in every version. In any event, the concept of fist hardening is relevant to our studies given the context of the illustration’s title, Kenpo-jutsu (拳法術),
 therefore, we understand that its practice was related to martial arts. 

Ochaya-udun Demonstration 1867 *Searching for Original Document.
This historical event is included because it was the first recorded Okinawan kata demonstration ever for the Chinese envoys at the royal teahouse villa, hosted by the Kumemura Meirindō school. Amazingly, Seisan, Shisōchin, and Suparinpei are listed as having been performed. This is astonishing.

Timbe and Rochin by Maeda Chiku.
Bo-jutsu vs. Teshaku by Maeda Chiku and Aragaki Tsuji.
十三歩(セイサン) Possibly Seisan by Aragaki Tsuji.
Bo-jutsu vs. Tōdi Maeda Chiku and Aragaki Tsuji.
ちしゃうちん(四向战)Possibly Shisōchin kata by Aragaki Tsuji.
Timbe vs. bo-jutsu by Tomura Chikudon and Aragaki Tsuji.
Teshaku by Maeda Chiku.
Kochô Tōdi (prearranged sparring) by Maeda Chiku and Aragaki Tsuji.
Shabo (bo-jutsu kata) by Ikemiyagusuku Shusai.
壱百零八歩 Possibly Suparinpei by Tomimura Chikudundon Pechin.

十三歩 = Seisan, possibly from the Fujian White Crane form 十三步摇.
ちしゃうちん(四向战)= Four Way Battle. This is possibly the kata later known as Shisōchin, pronounced in it’s original Fujianese.
壱百零八歩 = Suparinpei.

御茶屋御殿跡(うちゃやうどぅんあと)= Ochaya-udunato, or royal teahouse villa.
Ochaya-udun was a resting villa for Ryukyuan royalty. It was located in the eastern part of the Shuri castle grounds in Sakiyama, it was also known as “the eastern garden.” Built in 1677 by King Shō Tei, as a place to entertain envoys from China and the Satsuma clan.

Furness, William Henry, Life in the Luchu Islands 1899
“The prize was awarded to the winning boat by the government, and local history reveals that these races always end in a free fight.” P. 15 (Regarding Boat Racing matches)

“We were told that young men occasionally engage in boxing bouts, with bare knuckles; all blows are struck with the right hand, while the left is used solely as a guard. Clinching and wrestling for a fall are considered legitimate features of the sport.” P. 19

Ryukyu Shimpo, Shoto (Funakoshi Gichin) “The Martial Arts of Okinawa: Part 2” January 18, 1914.
安里安恒談・松濤筆「沖縄の武技(中)」『琉球新報』大正3年1月18日

“Those who received instruction from a castaway from Annan in Fuzhou, include: Gusukuma’s teacher Kanagusuku (Chinto), Matsumora and Oyadomari (Chinte), Yamasato (Jiin) and Nakasato (Jitte) all of Tomari, who learned the kata separately. The reason being that their teacher was in a hurry to return to his home country.”

Ryukyu Shimpo,  “Experts of Karate” March 21, 1918
唐手の達人達  『琉球新報』 大正 7年 3月 21日

“At the appointed time, students third grade or higher from the regular course, performed Ryukyuan Sumo and a Karate match. This was proceeded by Karate Bunkai, more Kata, followed by warmups and an additional match. Later, Yabu sensei explained to the audience about kata that were taught at the school.”

“Next, were demonstrations of Mr. Choyu Motobu’s Shyōchin kata, old Mr. Kiyuna’s Passai, old Mr. Chinen’s staff and Yabu’s Gojūshiho kata.”
本部朝勇氏のショーチン Motobu Choyu Family’s Shyōchin (Sōchin)
喜友名翁のパッサイ Old Kiyuna’s Passai
屋部の五十四歩 Yabu no Gojūshiho

Funakoshi Gichin, 唐手 : 琉球拳法 Tōdi: Ryūkyū Kenpo 1922
Pinan Shodan ピンアン初段1922
Naihanchi Shodan ナイハンチ初段
Kushanku 公相君
Pinan Nidan ピンアン二段
Pinan Sandan ピンアン三段
Pinan Yondan ピンアン四段
Pinan Godan ピンアン五段
Naihanchi Nidan ナイハンチ二段
Naihanchi Sandan ナイハンチ三段
Seishan セーシャン
Passai (Dai) パッサイ(大)
Wanshu ワンシユウ
Chintō チントウ
Jitte ジッテ
Jion ジォン

Pinan 平安 (There are 5)
Naihanchi ナイハンチ (There are 3)
Bassai バッサイ (Dai・Sho)
Kushanku 公相君 (Dai・Sho)
Gojūshiho 五十四歩
Seishan セーシャン
Chintō チントウ
Chinte チンテー
Jiin ジーン
Jitte ジッテ
Jion ジォン
Wanshu 汪輯 (Wāng Jí)
Wandau ワンダウ
Rōhai ローハイ
Jūmu ジュウム
Wandou ワンドウ
Sōchin ソーチン
Niseishi 二十四
Sanseiru 三十六
Supareipai 一百零八
Wankuwan ワンクワン
Kokan コカン (Oyadomari)
Unshu 雲手

Funakoshi also lists the students of the old masters
Ason: Sakiyama, Gushi, Nagahama, and Tomoyori, all of Naha
Iwah: Matsumura of Shuri, Maesato of Kume, and Kogusuku (Kojo)
Wai Xinxian: Shimabukuro of Uemondono, Higaonna of the West, Higaonna of the East, Senaha, and Kuwae
Drifter of Fuzhou Annan: Shiroma (Gusukuma), Kaneshiro, Matsumora, Yamasato, and Nakasato, all of Tomari
Sakiyama’s lineage was entrusted to Tomigusuku Oyakata of Shuri
Matsumura’s lineage was entrusted to Asato
Gusukuma’s lineage was entrusted to Itosu

Funakoshi Gichin, 錬膽護身 唐手術 Rentan Goshin Karate Jutsu 1925
Same lists as 1922.Karate Jutsu 1925

Pinan Shodan ピンアン初段 (Still the original version)
Naihanchi Shodan ナイハンチ初段
Kushanku 公相君
Pinan Nidan ピンアン二段
Pinan Sandan ピンアン三段
Pinan Yondan ピンアン四段
Pinan Godan ピンアン五段
Naihanchi Nidan ナイハンチ二段
Naihanchi Sandan ナイハンチ三段
Seishan セーシャン
Passai パッサイ
Wanshu ワンシユウ2 karate jutsu 1925
Chintō チントウ
Jitte ジッテ
Jion ジォン

Pinan 平安 (There are 5)
Naihanchi ナイハンチ (There are 3)
Bassai バッサイ (Dai・Sho)
Kushanku 公相君 (Dai・Sho)
Gojūshiho 五十四歩
Seishan セーシャン
Chintō チントウ
Chinte チンテー
Jiin ジーン
Jitte ジッテ
Jion ジォン
Wanshu 汪輯 (Wāng Jí)
Wandau ワンダウ
Rōhai ローハイ
Jūmu ジュウム
Wandou ワンドウ
Sōchin ソーチン
Niseishi 二十四
Sanseiru 三十六
Supareipai 一百零八
Wankuwan ワンクワン
Kokan コカン (Oyadomari)
Unshu 雲手

Motobu Choki, 琉球拳法唐手術組手編 Okinawa Kenpo Tōdi Jutsu Kumite Hen 1926
Sanchin サンチン
Gojūshiho 五十四歩
Seisan セーサン
Seiyunchin セーユンチン
Suparinpei 一百零八
Naihanchi (3 levels) ナイハンチ
Bassai (Dai・Sho) バツサイ(大・小)
Chinto チントー
Chinte チンテー
Wanshū ワンシユー (2 versions in Tomari)
Rōhai ローハイ (2 versions in Tomari)
Kushanku 公相君 (3 versions)
Pinan 平安

Motobu Choki, 私の唐手術 Watashi no Karate Jutsu 1932
Same list as 1926.

Sanchin サンチン
Gojūshiho 五十四歩
Seisan セーサン
Seiyunchin セーユンチン
Suparinpei 一百零八
Naihanchi (3 levels) ナイハンチ
Bassai (Dai・Sho) バツサイ(大・小)
Chinto チントー
Chinte チンテー
Wanshu ワンシユー (2 versions in Tomari)
Rōhai ローハイ (2 versions in Tomari)
Kushanku 公相君 (3 versions)
Pinan 平安

Miyagi Chojun, 空手道の概説 Karate-do Gaisetsu 1933 (Japan 1934)
In his outline Miyagi Chōjun states, “Sanchin, Tensho, and Naifanchi are the fundamental Kata.” Unfortunately, he does not name the Kaishu kata. He does say, however, “Nowadays we have about twenty or thirty kinds of Kata.”

Mabuni Kenwa, 十八の研究 Seipai no Kenkyū 1934
This amazing book showcases one single kaishu kata, Seipai. Mabuni demonstrates the kata’s movements, and bunkai with Konishi Yasuhiro, complete with modern photography. Near the end of the book, other exercises like the Rokkishu are shown, as well as a portion of the Bubishi.

Seipai 十八の型

Morinobu Itoman, 唐手術の研究 Tōdi Jutsu no Kenkyu 1934 (Mario McKenna translation)
1. Seisan 十三歩

2. Iha-shi Seisan 伊波氏十三歩
3. Kyan-shi Seisan 喜屋武氏十三歩
4. Seipai 十八歩
5. Niseshi (Nijushiho) 二十四歩
6. Sanseru 三十六歩
7. Kyan-shi Useshi (Gojushiho) 喜屋武氏五十四歩
8. Itosu-shi Useshi (Gojushiho) 糸洲氏五十四
9. Suparinpei Dai & Sho 一百零八歩 大 小
10. Toma-shi Ryuho 富間氏龍歩
11. Rokishu 六機手
12. Unshu Dai & Sho 雲手 大 小
13. Ryushu Dai & Sho 龍手 大 小
14. Nanshu Dai & Sho 南手 大 小
15. Pinan Shodan, Nidan, Sandan, Yondan, Godan 平安 初段 二段 三段 四段 五段
16. Kusanku Dai & Sho 公相君 大 小
17. Wanshu 汪楫
18. Naifanchi Shodan, Nidan, Sandan ナイファンチ 初段 二段 三段
19. Passai Dai & Sho パッサイ 大 小
20. Tawada-shi Passai 多田氏パッサイ
21. Jitte ジッテ
22. Chinto チントウ
23. Tomari no Chintō 泊のチントウ
24. Chinte チンテ
25. Niwon 二ーヲン
26. Unuibu ウヌイブー
27. Nuichie ヌイチエー
28. Jiin ジーン
29. Jūmu ジュウム
30. Kokan コカン
31. Yoshimura-shi Channan 吉村氏チャンナン
32. Seiyanchin セーヤンチン
33. Chinpei チンペー
34. Jion ジオン
35. Wandau ワンダウ
36. Rōhai ローハイ
37. Motobu-shi Sochin 本部氏ソーチン
38. Aragaki-shi Sochin 新垣氏ソーチン
39. Pichurin ピッチュウリン
40. Hanashiro-shi Kururunfa 花城氏クルルンファー
41. Wankuwan ワンくワン
42. Seishun セーシュン

Funakoshi Gichin, 空手道教範 Karate-dō Kyohan First Edition 1935
Heian Shodan 平安初段 (Pinan Nidan)Cover Karatedo Kyohan 1935
Heian Nidan 平安二段 (Pinan Shodan)
Heian Sandan 平安三段 (Pinan Sandan)
Heian Yondan 平安四段 (Pinan Yondan)
Heian Godan 平安五段 (Pinan Godan)
Bassai Shodan 拔塞初段 (Bassai Dai) 
Kanku 観空 (Kushanku)
Kibadachi Shodan 騎馬立初段 (Naihanchi Shodan)
Kibadachi Nidan 騎馬立二段 (Naihanchi Nidan)
Kibadachi Sandan 騎馬立三段 (Naihanchi Sandan)
Hangetsu 半月 (Seishan)
Jitte 十手
Empi 燕飛 (Wanshu)
Gankaku 岩鶴 (Chintō)
Jion 慈恩

Nakasone Genwa, 空手道大観 1938 (Mario McKenna Translation)
Hanashiro Chomo is pictured performing Jion
Mabuni Kenwa is pictured performing Aragaki Sochin (Mentions other versions)
Chibana Choshin is pictured performing Matsumura (Tawada) Passai (Mentions Itosu’s version)
Otsuka Hironori is pictured performing a bowing ceremony, and dagger disarming techniques

Taira Shinken is pictured performing Kongo no Kata (actually Shushi no Kon)
The kobudo kata below are mentioned
Shushi no Kon
Sakugawa no Kon (three versions)
Yonegawa no Kon
Shirataru no Kon
Tsuken Bo (three versions)
Sunakake no Kon (two versions)
Teruya no Kon
Choun no Kon
Shikiyanaka no Kon
Sesoko no Kon
Nakasone Genwa is illustrated performing Karate-do kata 1-12

Mabuni Kenwa, 攻防自在護身拳法空手道入門 Kobo Jizai Goshin Kenpo Karate Dō Nyumon 1938

Mabuni suggests kanji for familiar kata 
Kusanku クーサンクー 公相君
Naihanchi ナイフアンチ 内歩連
Pinan ピンアン 平安
Wanshu ワンシユウ 汪輯
Tensho 轉掌

Mabuni mentions Channan was Itosu’s original name for the Pinan kata
Channan チャンナン

Itosu Line
Naihanchi (1-3) ナイフアンチ Suggests 内歩連
Pinan (1-5) ぴんあん 平安
Rōhai (1-3) ローハイ Suggests 鷺牌
Kōshōkun (Dai・Sho・Shiho) こうしようくん 公相君
Passai (Dai・Sho) パツサイ Suggests 抜砦
Gojūshiho 五十四歩
Jitte ジツテ
Jiin ジーン
Jion ジオン
Chintō チントウ
Chinte チンテー
Wanshū ワンシユウ Suggests 汪輯

Higashionna Line
Sanchin さんちん 三戦
Tenseu てんせう 轉掌 (Kanji for Tensho)
Seisan セーサン 十三
Seienchin セーエンチン
Seipai セーパイ 十八
Sanseiru サンセールー 三十八 (Kanji misspelled)
Suparinpai スーパーリンパイ 一百〇八 Pechūrin ペッチユウリン 百歩連
Sōchin ソーチン
Saifa サイファ
Kururunfa クルルンファー

Aragaki Line
Niseishi 二十四
Unshu 雲手
Sochin ソーチン

Mabuni mentions two versions of Sochin
Aragaki Sochin 新垣派ソーチン
Higaonna Sochin (Today in Gōjū-ryū) 東恩納派ソーチン

Two versions of Seisan
Naha 那覇セーサン
Shuri 首里セーサン

And two versions of Gojushiho
Matsumura Gojushiho 松村派五十四歩
Itosu Gojushiho 糸洲派五十四歩

Miyagi Hisateru, 空手道 Karate-dō 1953
Miyagi was a colleague of Funakoshi, who studied under Itosu Anko and Yabu Kentsu, thus, the kata chosen mostly reflect Shōrin-Ryū. An 84 year old Funakoshi Sensei is pictured, and also gives the forward to this book. Within this work, Pinan Shodan is identical to Heian Shodan. Many of Funakoshi’s renamed kata are used, and he is also credited for changing these kata names.

Pinan 1-5 ピンアン 平安
Naihanchi 1-3 (Kibadachi) ナイハンチ(騎馬立)
Kusanku. Kankū クーサンクー(公相君)観空
Passai パツサイ(拔塞)
Sanchin サンチン
Rōhai ローハイ
Seisan (Hangetsu) セーサン(半月)
Jitte ジッテ(十手)
Wanshū (Empi) ワンシユウ(燕飛)
Chintō (Gankaku) チントウ(岩鶴)
Jion ジオン(慈恩)
Gojushiho 五十四歩

Pictured
Kusanku Sho 公相君(小)

Ichikawa Kojiro, 空手道入門 Karate-dō Nyumon 1955
This book was endorsed by the Nippon Karate Kenkyukai, which later changed its name to Nippon Karate-do Shotokai. Interestingly, many kata on this list have their updated names that have since been rejected for the original kata names.

Itosu Sensei’s Line of Kata
Pinan/Heian 1-5 ピンアン/ヘイアン 平安 From Channan チヤンナン
Naihanchi 1-3 ナイフアンチ 内歩連
Kushanku クーシヤンク 公相君 観空
Kushanku Dai & Sho 公相君 大・小
Chibana Kushanku 知花公相君

Shiho Kushanku 四歩公相君 Made by Itosu & Mabuni
Wanshū ワンシユウ 燕飛
Wankuwan ワンクワン(飛濤)
Chintō チントウ(鎮東)岩鶴
Chinte チンテー(松蔭・鎮定)
Rōhai ローハイ (明鏡・鷺牌)
Gojushiho 五十四歩(鳳啄)
Yabu Gojushiho 屋部五十四歩
Bassai Dai・Sho 大・小 バッサイ(拔塞)
Jiin ジイン(松喬)
Jion ジオン(慈恩)
Jitte ジッテ(十手)

Aragaki Sensei’s Line of Kata
Niseishi ニーセーシ 二十四 撥雲
Unshu ウンシユ 雲手
Sōchin ソーチン 松風

Higashionna Sensei’s Line of Kata
Sanchin サンチン 三戦
Tenshō テンショウ 転掌 From Rokkishu 六気手.
Seishan セイシャン(半月)
Seisan セーサン(十三)
Seienchin セーエンチン(征遠鎭)
Seipai セーパイ(十八)
Saifa サイフア(最破)
Sanseiru サンセール(三十六)留頓
Suparinpai スーパーリンパイ 一百〇八 Also called Pechurin 百歩進
Sōchin ソーチン(八荒)(壮鎭)
Kururunfa クルルンファー(来留破)

Funakoshi Sensei’s Line of Kata
Ten no Kata 天之型
Chi no Kata 地之型
Jin no Kata 人之型
Taikyoku 1-3 大極

Hironishi Motonobu, 目でみる空手入門 Me de miru Karate Nyumon 1955
This book contains possibly the first photographed version of the kata Meikyō, and refers to its evolution from Rōhai. Also photographed is Heian Godan. Despite Motonobu’s affiliation with Shotokai, the techniques appear comparable to a “JKA” style of Shotokan.

Heian Godan 平安五段
Meikyō 明鏡

Konishi Yasuhiro, 空手上達法 Karate Jotatsu Ho 1956
Taisabaki Nidan 体捌弐段の形
Taisabaki Sandan 体捌三段の形
Seiryu 青柳の形
Gojūshiho 五十四歩の形
Pinan Shodan 平安初段の形 (Heian Nidan From Funakoshi Sensei)
Passai Dai パッサイ大の形 (From Mabuni Sensei)
Pinan Nidan 平安弐段の形
Pinan Sandan 平安参段の形
Pinan Yondan 平安四段の形
Pinan Godan 平安五段の形
Jitte ジッテの形
Jion ジオンの形
Jiin ジインの形
Niseishi ニーセーシ(二十四の形)
Wanshu ワンシュウの形
Shinpa シンパー(心破の形)
Sōchin ソーチンの形
Unsū ウンスウ(雲手の形)

Konishi, 図解空手入門 神道自然流 Zukai Karate Nyumon Shindō Jinen-Ryū 1956
Itosu Sensei no Kata
Pinan 平安 (1-5)
Naihanchin 内歩進 (1-3)
Rōhai ローハイ (1-3)
Koshokun 公相君 (Dai・Sho・Shiho)
Passai パッサイ (Dai・Sho)
Gojūshiho 五十四歩
Jitte ジッテ
Jiin ジーン
Jion ジオン
Chintō チントウ
Chinte チンテー
Wanshu ワンシュウ

Aragaki Sensei no Kata
Niseishi 二十四(ニーセーシー)
Unsu 雲手(ウンスー)
Sōchin ソーチン

Higaonna Sensei no Kata
Sanchin 三進
Tensho 轉掌
Seisan 十三
Seienchin セーヱンチン
Seipai 十八
Sanseiru 三十六
Suparinpai 一百〇八
Sōchin ソーチン
Saifa サイファー
Kururunfa クルヽンファー

Konishi mentions other kata
Seisan セーサン (Multiple versions)
Tawada no Passai タハタのパッサイ
Ishimine no Passai 石嶺のパッサイ
Gojūshiho 五十四歩 (Itosu・Matsumura)
Shimpa シンパー
Pappuren パープレン
Haufa ハウフアー
Nijūhachiho 二十八歩
Taisabaki 體捌 1-3

Toyama Kanken, 奥義秘術空手道 Okugi Hijutsu Karate-dō 1956
In this book, Toyama is shown performing Naihanchi Shodan and Koryu Useshi. Koryu Useshi is supposedly Matsumura’s version of Gojushiho, which seems very similar to Mabuni’s version which would eventually become Gojushiho Dai in Shotokan. Toyama learned this kata from Yabu Kentsu. The two kata in this book are photographed beautifully.

Naihanchi Shodan ナイハンチ初段Toyama Okugi 1956
Pinan Shodan 平安初段
Seisan 十三
Jitte ヂッテ
Seipai 十八
Gojūshiho 五十四歩
Chintō チントウ
Naihanchi Nidan ナイハンチ二段
Kusanku Sho 公相君小
Passai パッサイ
Tomari no Passai 泊ノパッサイ
Seisan 十三
Suparinpei 一百零八
Seisan 十三
Passai パッサイ

Photographed Kata
Naihanchi ナイファンチ・初段
Koryu Useishi 古流五十四歩の型

Ieshiro Kotake, 空手極意教範 Karate Gokui Kyōhan 1958 (1954 1st edition)
Pinan 1-5 (Heian) ピナアン(平安)
Naihanchi 1-3 (Kibadachi) ナイフアンチ(騎馬立)
Kushaku (Kanku) クーシヤク(観空)Dai and Sho 大・小
Bassai バッサイ(拔塞)Dai and Sho 大・小
Wanshū (Empi) ワンシユウ(燕飛)
Chintō (Gankaku) チントウ(岩鶴)
Jitte ジツテ(十手)
Seishan (Hangetsu) セイシャン(半月)
Jion ジオン(慈恩)
Rōhai (Meikyo) ローハイ(明鏡)
Sōchin (Hakkō) ソーチン(八荒)
Niseishi (Hatsuun) ニーセーシー (撥雲)
Wankuwan (Hitō) ワンクワン(飛濤)
Chinte (Matsukage) チンテー(松蔭)
Jiin (Shōkyō) ジイン(松喬)
Gojushiho (Hōtaku) 五十四歩(鳳啄)
Taikyoku 1-3 太極
Ten no Kata 天之形
Chi no Kata 地之形
Jin no Kata 人之形

Also mentions
Sanchin 三戦(サンチン)
Tenshyau 転掌(テンシャウ)

Nishiyama Hidetaka, Karate The Art of “Empty Hand”Fighting 1960
Heian no. 4

“There are more than fifty formal exercises handed down from the past. Some are very old, others of more recent origin. There are relatively simple ones, extremely complicated ones, those requiring agile movement, others depending on muscular or breath control. Modern students of karate are urged to master a variety of them, rather than concentrating on any one.” P. 150

“Formerly called by the Chinese word Ping-an…they were changed to their present Japanized form by Funakoshi Gichin around 1920″ P. 152 (Heian)

Onko Chishin, “Kaneshima Shinsuke” November 21, 1961

Kaneshima Shinsuke (64) – Douchin

First ever demonstration of Douchin

“He was born in Yonabaru Town in 1897. He served as the second mayor of Yonabaru and is presently the chairman of the town assembly. On the side of his busy official activities, he opened the Shobukan Dojo and devote himself in instructing his juniors. From the age of 15, he learned from Motobu Choyu sensei (elder son of Motobu Saaru) among others. Since then and for more than 50 years, he has kept practicing karatedo. At the coming demonstration, he will perform the kata Douchin.”

“Douchin is a kata never seen in Okinawa therefore it will be the first ever demonstration in public. It is one of the many secrets that Mr. Kaneshima has in his repertory. He learned this kata from Chin Hando sensei after crossing over to Taiwan when 17. Kaneshima has dedicated his life to karatedo and he is eager to demonstrate, his face being filled with confidence. Very involved with the preservation of kobudo, he together with President Higa Seitoku, has gone all around the island to gather the authorities of kobudo.”

“And he will prove it as he will perform Douchin for the first time in public. Wiping his sweat he goes on saying that he is not at all short of breath because as he explains karate built great physique and spirit. (Yonabaru Town Morishita Ward 35)”

Extra notes: According to the “Okinawa Karate Kobudo Encyclopedia”, Kaneshima sensei passed away in 1990 at the age of 93. He was also a student of Tokuyama Chogi sensei. He used the name of his master to name his own karate “Tozan-ryu”. Today, some of his students continue his legacy using the name “Shorinpa Kenpo Tozan-ryu.”

Nakayama Masatoshi, Karate Kata: Heian・Tekki 1970
Heian 1 平安初段

Heian 2 平安二段
Heian 3 平安三段
Heian 4 平安四段
Heian 5 平安五段
Tekki 1 鉄騎初段
Tekki 2 鉄騎二段
Tekki 3 鉄騎三段
Bassai Dai 拔塞 大
Bassai Sho 拔塞 小
Kanku Dai 観空 大
Kanku Sho 観空 小

“Free kata may be chosen from Bassai, Kanku, Hangetsu, Empi. Jion, Tekki, Jitte, Gankaku, Nijūshihō, Gojūshihō, Unsu, Sōchin, Meikyō, Chintei, Wankan, and others.” P. 11

Funakoshi Gichin, Karate-dō Kyōhan 1973 (English translation)
Taikyoku Shodan (Mentions 1-3)
Heian Shodan
Heian Nidan
Heian Sandan
Heian Yondan
Heian Godan
Bassai
Kwankū
Tekki Shodan
Tekki Nidan
Tekki Sandan
Hangetsu
Jutte
Empi
Gankaku
Jion
Ten no Kata (Omote・Ura)

“Having mastered these five forms, one can be confident that he is able to defend himself competently in most situations. The meaning of the name is to be taken in this context.” P. 35 Heian

“The name of this kata was derived originally from that of the Chinese military attache Kū Shanku, who introduced it. I have changed the name to the present one referring to the first movement of the kata, in which one raises his hands and looks up at the sky.” P. 36 Kwankū

“The distinctive motion of this kata is an upper level attack following which one grasps the opponent and draws him inward, simultaneously jumping in and attacking again. The movement resembles the up and down and flipping away flight of a swallow.” P. 36 Empi

“One characteristically describes semicircles with the hands and feet, and the name is derived from this.” P. 36 Hangetsu

“The name refers to the distinctive feature of these kata, their horse riding stance.”
P. 36 Tekki

Funakoshi Gichin, Karate-Do: My way of life 1975 (Original 1956)
“Sometimes I would practice under the tutelage of the two masters, Azato and Itosu at the same time.” P. 7

“Meanwhile, I continued assiduously with my karate, training under a number of teachers: Master Kiyuna…Master Tōonno of Naha…Master Niigaki…and Master Matsumura.” P. 13

“…almost all the kata names I described in my book were of Okinawan origin: Pinan, Naihanchi, Chinto, Bassai, Seishan, Jitte, Jion, Sanchin, and the like. These were, in fact, the names that I had learned long ago from my own teachers.” P. 36

“I began to give the kata names that were easier to the Japanese people to use and that have now become familiar all over the world: Ten no Kata, Chi no Kata, Hito no Kata, Empi, Gankaku, Hangetsu, Meikyō, Hakkō, Kiun, Shōtō, Shōin, Hotaku, Shōkyō and so on.” P.37

“Oh no, not my wife! What she did to relieve her exhausted body was go outside and practice karate kata, and in due course she became so adept that her movements were as dextrous as those of an expert.”  P. 41

“It was not without a trace of pride that, in the spring of 1936, I entered for the first time the new dōjō (in Zoshigaya, Toshima Ward) and saw over the door a signboard bearing the dōjō’s new name: Shōtō-kan.”  P. 83

Sakagami Ryusho, 空手道大鑑・平安編 Karate-dō Taikan – Pinan 1976 (1974 1st edition)

Itosu Line
Pinan 1-5 ピナアン 平安
Jitte ジッテ 術手
Jion ジオン 慈音
Jiin ジイン 慈允
Passai Dai, Sho パッサイ 抜砦 大 小
Kusanku Dai, Sho 公相君 大 小
Shiho Kusanku 四歩公相君
Naifanchin 1-3 ナイファンチン 内歩進
Wanshu ワンシュウ 腕秀
Chintō チントウ 鎮党
Chinte チンテー 鎮定
Rōhai 1-3 ローハイ 鷺牌
Gojūshiho ゴジュシホウ 五十四歩
Chinshu チンシュウ 鎮衆
Wandaun ワンダウン 椀打雲

Higashionna Line
Gekisai 1-2 ゲキサイ 撃砦
Sanchin サンチン 三戦
Tensho テンショウ 転掌
Seisan セーサン 十三
Seipai セーパイ 十八
Seienchin セーエンチン 征遠鎮
Sanseiru サンセール 三十六
Saifa サイファ 砦破
Shisochin シソーチン 師壮鎮
Kururunfa クルルンファー 来留破
Suparinpei 壱百零八

Matsumora Line
Passai パッサイ 抜砦
Rōhai ローハイ 鷺牌
Wankan ワンカン 腕貫
Chintō チントウ 鎮党
Wanshū ワンシュウ 腕秀

Aragaki Line
Sōchin ソーチン 壮鎮
Niseishi ニーセーシ 二十四
Unshu ウンシュウ 雲手

Matsumura Line
Seisan セーサン 征参
Passai パッサイ 抜砦

Uechi Line
Sanchin サンチン 三戦
Seisan セーサン 十三
Sanseiru サンセール 三十六
Shinpa シンパー 侵破

Ishimine Line
Passai パッサイ 抜砦

Kuniyoshi Line
Kushanku 公相君

Chatan Yara Line
Kushanku 公相君

Nagamine Shōshin, The Essence of Okinawan Karate-do 1976
Matsubayashi ryū
1. Fukyugata I

2. Fukyugata II
3. Pinan Shodan
4. Pinan Nidan
5. Pinan Sandan
6. Pinan Yondan
7. Pinan Godan
8. Naihanchi Shodan
9. Naihanchi Nidan
10. Naihanchi Sandan
11. Ananku
12. Wankan
13. Rohai
14. Wanshu
15. Passai
16. Gojushiho
17. Chinto
18. Kusanku

“It is believed that there once existed thirty kata in Shuri-te and Tomari-te, but only eighteen have been preserved in Matsubayashi-ryu karate-do; sixteen were inherited from Choki Motobu, Chotoku Kyan, and Ankichi Arakaki, and two (Fukyugata I and II) were later added.” P. 125

“Two Fukyugata commonly practiced today were composed by Shoshin Nagamine, the originator of Matsubayashi-ryu karate, and Chojun Miyagi, the originator of Goju-ryu karate, because the kata of the Shuri and Naha schools had been too difficult for beginners. In 1940, two of the compositions were authorized to be the formal basic kata by the special committee of Okinawa karate-do organized and summoned by Gen Hayakawa, then governor of Okinawa Prefecture.” P. 126

“Pinan Shodan to Godan were composed in 1907 by Anko Itosu who was born in 1830. They were originally intended for high school students. The name of this kata must be pronounced pinan, not heian, as it often is in mainland Japan.” P. 139

Egami Shigeru, The Way of Karate : Beyond Technique 1976
Taikyoku 1-3
Heian 1-5
Bassai
Kankū
Tekki 1-3
Hangetsu
Jutte
Empi
Gankaku
Jion
Ten no Kata (Omote and Ura)

“The nineteen kata designated for practice by the Shōtō-kan were: Taikyoku Shodan, Taikyoku Nidan, Taikyoku Sandan, Heian Shodan, Heian Nidan, Heian Sandan, Heian Yodan, Heian Godan, Bassai, Kankū, Tekki Shodan, Tekki Nidan, Tekki Sandan, Hangetsu, Jutte, Empi, Gankaku, Jion, and Ten no Kata (Omote and Ura;)” P. 103

Toguchi Seikichi, Okinawan Goju-ryu The Fundamentals of Shorei-kan Karate 1976
Screen Shot 2015-12-19 at 12.58.33 AM
1. Hookiyu Kata no. 1
2. Hookiyu Kata no. 2
3. Gekisai no. 1
4. Gekisai no. 2
5. Gekisai no. 3
6. Gekiha no. 1
7. Gekiha no. 2
8. Kakuha no. 1
9. Kakuha no. 2

Hisataka Masayuki, Scientific Karate-do 1976
Sanchin

Naihanchin
Nijushiho
Heian kata ichi (or shodan)
Sankakutobi
Heian yon (dan)
Happiken
Koshiki Naihanchin
Seisan
Bassai
Chinto
Sochin
Jion
Kusoku (Kusokun)

Shoji Hiroshi, Karate Kata Series 2: Gojushiho (Dai) 1976
“GOJYUSHIHO (Dai) includes a technique of three consecutive Chūdan (middle-section) attacks with Hitosashi-yubi-ippon-nukite (one-finger spear-hand with forefinger) shifted from Keitō-uke (chicken-head-wrist block); and GOJYUSHIHO (Sho) includes a technique of three consecutive Chūdan (middle-section) attacks with Shihon-tate-nukite (four-finger vertical spear-hand) shifted from Chūdan-tate-shutō-uke (vertical knife-hand block against body attack) through Haishu-osae-uke (back-hand pressing block).” P. 2

Sakagami Ryusho, 空手道型大鑑 Karate-dō Kata Taikan 1978
This list is similar to the list of kata from his 1976 Karate-dō Taikan – Pinan book, apart from the extension to the Uechi Line, and the inclusion of the Additional list.

Descended from the Uechi Line
Sanchin サンチン 三戦
Seisan セーサン 十三
Sanseiru サンセール 三十六
Shinpa シンパー 侵破
Kanshiwa カンシワ 完子和
Seiryu セーリュリウ 十六
Kanchin カンチン 完戦
Seichin セーチン 十戦
Kanshu カンシュウ 完周

Additional
Haffa ハッファ 白鳥
Nippaipo ニッパイポー 二十八歩
Pappuren パープーレン 八歩連
Jūroku ジュウロク 十六
Aoyagi アオヤギ 青柳
Ryūshu リュウシウ 龍手
Nanshu ナンシウ 南手
Anankō アーナンコウ 阿南公
Ishimine Bassai 石嶺のバッサイ
Oyadomari Bassai 親泊のバッサイ
Teruya Bassai 照屋のバッサイ
Azato Bassai 安里のバッサイ
Oshiro Bassai 大城のバッサイ
Motobu Bassai 本部のバッサイ
Kyan Bassai 喜屋武のバッサイ
Itokazu Jitte 糸数の十手
Chatanyara Kusanku 北谷屋良の公相
Chibana Kusanku 知花の公相君
Kuniyoshi Kusanku 国吉の公相君
Iha Seisan 伊波のセーサン
Kyan Seisan 喜屋武のセーサン
Aragaki Seisan 新垣のセーサン
Oshiro Seisan 大城のセーサン
Yabu Gojushiho 屋部の五十四歩
Motobu Sochin 本部のソーチン
Kyan Chinto 喜屋武のチントー
Hanashiro Kururunfa 花城クルルンファ
Tōma Ryuho 當間の龍歩
Yoshimura Channan 吉村のチャンナン
Seishu セーシュウ
Nichin ニーチン
Unuibu ウヌイブー
Nuichie ヌイチェー
Jūmu ジュウム
Kokan コカン
Chinpei チンペイ

Nakayama Masatoshi, Best Karate 1979
Vol.5: Heian, Tekki
Vol.6: Bassai, Kankū

Nakayama Masatoshi, Best Karate 1981
Vol.7: Jitte, Hangetsu, Empi
Vol.8: Gankaku, Jion

Kanazawa Hirokazu, Shotokan International Kata (Vol. 1) 1981
Heian Shodan 平安初段

Heian Nidan 平安二段
Heian Sandan 平安三段
Heian Yondan 平安四段
Heian Godan 平安五段
Tekki Shodan 鉄騎初段
Bassai-Dai 拔塞大
Kanku-Dai 観空大
Enpi 燕飛
Sochin 壮鎮
Meikyo 明鏡
Ji’in 慈蔭

Gojushiho-Dai 五十四歩大

Kanazawa Hirokazu, Shotokan International Kata (Vol. 2) 1982
Jion 慈恩
Jitte 十手
Hangetsu 半月
Gankaku 岩鶴
Tekki Nidan 鉄騎二段
Tekki Sandan 鉄騎三段
Chinte 鎮手

Bassai Sho 拔塞小
Kanku Sho 観空小
Nijushiho 二十四歩
Unsu 雲手
Wankan 王冠
Gojushiho Sho 五十四歩小

Hassell, Randall G, Conversations with the Master: Masatoshi Nakayama 1983 (Interview from 1982)
“..the kata we now call Kanku Dai was formerly called Kushanku and we practice it exactly the way Master Funakoshi interpreted it.” P. 77

“The kata we call Kanku Sho and Bassai Sho are simply well-known variations of the original kata, Kanku and Bassai.” P. 77

“A kata that was developed and introduced by Yoshitaka Sensei, for example, is Sochin. Sochin was his specialty, and we learned it from him…” P. 79

“But Master Funakoshi never ceased his study of other forms of karate, and when we visited Master Mabuni, Master Funakoshi told me to learn Gojushiho and Nijushiho so we could study them more carefully. So Kenwa Mabuni taught me these kata.” P. 81

Enoeda Keinosuke, Shotokan Advanced Kata Volume 2, 1983
Bassai-Sho 拔塞小

Kanku-Sho 観空小
Jiin 慈院
Gankaku 岩鶴
Sochin 壮鎭

“TEKKI Kata (Literally Iron Knight)” – M. Nakayama (Preface) P.3

“Sensei Funakoshi designated the above fifteen kata (HEIAN 1.2.3.4.5. TEKKI 1.2.3. BASSAI, KANKU, JITTE, HANGETSU, EMPI, GANKAKU, and JION) – M. Nakayama (Preface) P.3

Enoeda Keinosuke, Shotokan Advanced Kata Volume 3, Copyright Text 1983 (First published in 1986)
Tekki-Nidan 鉄騎二段
Tekki-Sandan 鉄騎三段 (Two versions)
Nijushiho 二十四歩
Gojushiho-Dai 五十四歩大
Gojushiho-Sho 五十四歩小

Sugiyama Shojiro, 25 Shoto-Kan Kata, 1984
Heian Sho-dan 平安初段
Heian Ni-dan 平安二段
Heian San-dan 平安三段
Heian Yon-dan 平安四段
Heian Go-dan 平安五段
Tekki Sho-dan 鉄騎初段
Bassai Dai 拔塞大
Jion 慈恩
Empi 燕飛
Kanku Dai 観空大
Hangetsu 半月
Jitte 十手
Gankaku 岩鶴
Tekki Ni-dan 鉄騎二段
Tekki San-dan 鉄騎三段
Ni jyu-shi-ho 二十四歩
Chin-tei 珍手
So-chin 壮鎭
Meikyo 明鏡
Unsu 雲手
Bassai Shō 拔塞小
Kanku Shō 観空小
Wankan 王冠
Go jyu-shi-ho Shō 五十四歩小
Go jyu-shi-ho Dai 五十四歩大

Higaonna Morio, Traditional Karatedo Okinawa Goju Ryu Vol 1. 1985
Sanchin

“1683 Wang Ji.” The Names of the Chinese Envoys sent to the Ryukyu Dynasty. “
1683: A chinese envoy, called Wanshu (Wang Ji) a master of kempo, teaches a kata later called “Wanshu” in Tomari village.” P. 20
(Wang Ji is known as Ōshū in modern Japanese)

“1756 Guan Kui.” The Names of the Chinese Envoys sent to the Ryukyu Dynasty. “1756: Chinese Kempo master Kusanku comes to Ryukyu.” P. 20
(Guan Kui was his name, Kushanku was his title)

Nakayama Masatoshi, Best Karate 1985
Vol.9: Bassai Sho, Kankū Sho, Chinte

Nakayama Masatoshi, Best Karate 1987
Vol.10: Unsu, Sōchin, Nijūshiho

Funakoshi Gichin, Karate-Dō Nyūmon 1988 (1943 1st Edition)
Ten no Kata
Chi no Kata
Hito no Kata
Heian 1-5
Tekki 1-3
Bassai Dai・Sho
Kankū Dai・Sho
Empi
Gankaku
Jutte
Hangetsu
Jion
Meikyō
Hakko (Sōchin)
Kiūn (Nijūshiho)
Shōtō (Maybe Wankan)
Shōin (Chinte)
Hotaku (Gojushiho Dai)
Shōkyō (Jiin)

“The kata called Ten no Kata, explained in this book, was created and designed under the leadership and guidance of Master Funakoshi.” P. 7

“One of the subjects Master Funakoshi touches on in this book is his own masters: Azato, Itosu and Matsumura.” P. 9

“Master Itosu, from whom I so gratefully learned the Heian, Tekki and other kata, was the private secretary to the Ryukyuan king.” P. 22

“As far as I know, the only styles that have been handed down from the past are Gōjū-ryū of Master Miyagi and the Shito-ryu of master Mabuni. I have never given a name to the karate I am studying, but some of my students call it Shōtōkan-ryū.” P. 28

“At the Shōtōkan we are presently studying and investigating the following kata: Ten no Kata, Chi no Kata, Hito no Kata, Heian Shodan, Heian Nidan, Heian Sandan, Heian Yodan, Heian Godan, Tekki Shodan, Tekki Nidan, Tekki Sandan, Bassai Dai, Bassai Sho, Kankū Dai, Kankū Sho, Empi, Gankaku, Jutte, Hangetsu, Jion, Meikyō, Hakko, Kiun, Shōtō, Shōin, Hotaku and Shōkyō.” P. 49

“I did this diligently every day for ten years and was taught the three Tekki kata, which were Master Itosu’s specialty. I spent over three years on each one…” P. 100

Nakayama Masatoshi, Best Karate 1989
Vol.11: Gojūshiho Dai, Gojūshiho Shō, Meikyō

Sells, John, Unante 1996
We are very fortunate to own a copy of this amazing book. It is a must have. Basically, any authentic karate history, or any empirical data regarding karate will most likely have been said already in this book.

Nakamura Tadashi, Karate Technique & Spirit 2001
Taikyoku #1 大極Nakamura Karate Technique & Spirit 2001
Seido Kata #1 誠道型
Pinan 平安
Sanchin 三戦
Gekisai Dai 撃砕大
Gekisai Sho 撃砕小
Yantsu 安三
Tsuki no Kata 突きの型
Saiha 最破
Tensho 転掌

Seienchin 征遠鎮
Bo Kata Chion 知音
Koryu Gojushiho 古流五十四歩
Kanku 観空

Sakumoto Tsuguo, 劉衛流空手形全集 All Kata of Ryueiryu Karate 2005
Niseishi ニセーシー

Sanseiru サンセールー
Seisan セーサン
Pachu パーチュー
Heiku ヘイクー
Paiku パイクー
Anan アーナン

Mario McKenna, An Overview of Karatedo, 2009 (Translation of 空手道大観, 1938)

Mario McKenna, The Study of China Hand Techniques, 2012 (Translation of 唐手術の研究 1934)

With regard to the katakana and kanji used, they appear exactly how they were used in each corresponding publication. Thus, any misspelling by an author, although minimal, are kept uncorrected for authenticity.

If you feel certain kata are missing or underrepresented, please send me your old karate books in Japanese from the years 1922-1978. Or just scan the pages from the book’s kata list and I will translate it happily, and use said book for this bibliography.  Thank you!


© 2014 Alan Godshaw

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